Dry Metal Forming - Sustainable Production through Dry Processing in Metal Forming
The process of metal forming already belongs to the most energy-efficient production technologies, due to the high material utilisation. From an economic as well as an ecological point of view, there exists a strong demand to avoid lubricants within metal forming processes. Currently, in all groups of procedures in metal forming, lubricants are applied to reduce friction between work piece and forming tool, to protect semi-finished products and goods against corrosion and to reduce tool load. Within their product life cycle - from production to disposal - these mostly mineral oil based lubricants have an environmental impact. The central contribution of the Priority Programme is the development of new dry forming processes and to adapt relevant technologies to contribute to the goal of a lubricant-free press plant. Dry metal forming is a process where a work piece leaves the forming tool without the necessity of cleaning or drying before subsequent production steps such as coating or joining processes. The absence of a lubricant as an interlayer between work piece and forming tool results in an intense mechanical interaction between work piece surface and forming tool surface. The main challenge is to control these interactions, even without usage of lubricant. The influences of tribological factors and material properties on the process window are different. Understanding these deducing influences shall enable whether a critical reduction of the process window can be avoided. Focussed on the forming tool, the mechanisms of tool failure are in the foreground. To control the mechanisms of failure behaviour and to make dry forming applicable, an increasing load-bearing capacity of forming tools has to be realised to withstand stresses. This can be achieved by a targeted surface modification or by reducing stresses by process technical measures. The purpose is to implement a stable process by such modifications.